Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Engaging ideas, transforming minds

We don’t actively support Internet Explorer

It appears that you are using Internet Explorer, which has been discontinued by Microsoft. Support has ended for versions older than 11, and as a result you may face security issues and other problems when using it.

We recommend upgrading to a newer browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, or Edge for a much better experience across the web.

While this site may work with Explorer, we are not testing and verifying it, so you may run into some trouble or strange looking things.

346 pages
6.75 x 9.75 inches
August 2018
Print ISBN: 9781773380735


Ethics and Canadian Law Enforcement offers a comprehensive overview of law enforcement decision-making procedures in Canada, and evaluates the ethical conduct expected of law enforcement personnel, such as police officers, sheriffs, correctional officers, and private security. Dr. Richard Parent, a police officer for more than 30 years, draws on his professional experience to examine codes of conduct, internal investigations, misconduct and discipline, and the purpose of the civilian review.

This text provides an exceptional overview of the theories, personal morals, values, and tenets of professionalism that lay the foundation for ethical decision-making. Selected topics examine the use of force; on and off-duty challenges; issues of accountability and oversight; the application of issued firearms; diversity in the law enforcement workforce; and the considerations that are unique to law enforcement policies within Indigenous communities.

This accessible resource, which features boxed examples, chapter summaries, key terms, self-evaluation questions, and critical thinking exercises, is ideal for college and university students enrolled in police foundation and criminal justice programs, as well as law enforcement training agencies.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Overview of Ethical and Professional Conduct in Canadian

Law Enforcement 4

A Brief History of Law Enforcement 5

Ethics, Professionalism, and Legitimacy 10

Ethics and Law Enforcement by Private Security 14

Discretion, Power, and Public Service 16

An Overview of Morality and Contemporary Society 19

The Issues of Misconduct and Corruption 22

Responding to Ethical Concerns in Law Enforcement 29

Chapter Summary 34

Key Concepts 35

Links to Further Information 35

Self-Evaluation 36

References 37

Chapter 2 Morals, Ethics, Values, and Ethical Decision Making 39

Ethical Conduct and the Public 40

The Importance of Moral Conduct 44

The Importance of Morals, Ethics, and Values in Law

Enforcement 44
Major Ethical Theories and Systems 46

Ethical Dilemmas in Law Enforcement 55

Tools for Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 58

Chapter Summary 63

Key Concepts 63

Links to Further Information 64

Self-Evaluation 64

References 65

Chapter 3: Core Values, Codes of Conduct, and Investigative

Issues 67

Core Values of Law Enforcement 68

Codes of Conduct 70

Ethics and Investigative Issues 73

Chapter Summary 87

Key Concepts 87

Links to Further Information 88

Self-Evaluation 89

References 90

Chapter 4: The Ethical and Professional Law Enforcement Officer 92

New Recruits: Developing the Ethical and Professional Law Enforcement Officer 93

Promoting Diversity 110

Law Enforcement Training and Ethics 119

Chapter Summary 124 Key Concepts

Links to Further Information 125

Self-Evaluation 126

References 127

Chapter 5: The Law Enforcement Environment: On- and Off-Duty

Challenges 130

Occupational Subculture and the Law Enforcement Officer 131

On- and Off-Duty Challenges 136

Issues Specific to the Law Enforcement Environment 144

Chapter Summary153

Key Concepts 154

Links to Further Information 154

Self-Evaluation 155

References 156

Chapter 6: Decision Making and the Use of Force 158

Law Enforcement and the Use of Force 159

Use of Force: Models and Frameworks 161

The Process of Decision Making and the Use of Force 166

Firearms and the Use of Deadly Force by Law Enforcement in Canada 169

Public Scrutiny and Concerns of Trust 170

Research Surrounding the Use of Force by Law Enforcement 171

The Practice of Using Force by Law Enforcement 176

Similarities and Differences in the Use of Deadly Force 183

The Effect of Community Policing on Occupational Subculture 186

Decision Making and the Pursuit of Fleeing Motor Vehicles 187

Chapter Summary 192

Key Concepts 192

Links to Further Information 193

Self-Evaluation 194

References 195

Chapter 7: Accountability and Oversight 199

Accountability and Oversight in Canada 200

The Birth of Civilian Oversight 207

Professional Standards Units within Police Agencies 209

Commissions of Inquiry 210

Models of Investigation for Allegations of Misconduct 210

Investigating Police Shootings and Allegations of Serious Injury, Death, or
Sexual Assault 216

Examples of Civilian Oversight bodies for Serious Allegations 219

The RCMP Complaint and Review Process for All Provinces and
Territories 223

The Need for Further Accountability and Oversight 226

Chapter Summary 230

Key Concepts 231

Links to Further Information 231

Self-Evaluation 232

References 233

Chapter 8: Indigenous Peoples and Law Enforcement 236

Indigenous Communities and Law Enforcement 237

Indigenous Law Enforcement Initiatives across Canada 244

Autonomous Indigenous Police Agencies 250

Responding to Events on Indigenous Lands in Ontario 252

Indigenous Communities and Restorative Justice 256

Chapter Summary 259

Key Concepts 260

Links to Further Information 260

Self-Evaluation 261

References 262

Chapter 9: Correctional and Jail Services 265

Correctional Officers and the Process from Arrest to Jail Services 266

Profile of an Offender in Canada 268

Correctional Officer Duties and Responsibilities 270

At-Risk Populations in Correctional Facilities 281

Inside the Walls: Discretion, Respect, and Relationships 287

Public Notification 291

Chapter Summary 293

Key Concepts 294

Links to Further Information 294

Self-Evaluation 295

References 297

Chapter 10: Moving Forward: Fostering an Ethical and Professional

Workplace 299

Investigating and Limiting Law Enforcement Misconduct 300

Organizational Culture: The Importance of Ethical Leadership 311

Oriented towards Customer Service 318

Chapter Summary 322

Key Concepts 322

Links to Further Information 323

Self-Evaluation 324

References 325

Afterword: Building Community Partnerships: Legitimacy, Trust, and

Confidence 328

Index 333


Instructor Resources

See sample

Purchase Options